Parts of computer

Have you ever looked inside a computer caseor seen pictures of the inside of one? The small parts may look complicated, but the inside of a computer case isn't really all that mysterious.

This lesson will help you master some of the basic terminology and understand a bit more about what goes on inside a computer. The motherboard is the computer's main circuit board. It's a thin plate that holds the CPU, memory, connectors for the hard drive and optical drives, expansion cards to control the video and audio, and connections to your computer's ports such as USB ports. The motherboard connects directly or indirectly to every part of the computer.

The central processing unit CPUalso called a processoris located inside the computer case on the motherboard. It is sometimes called the brain of the computer, and its job is to carry out commands. Whenever you press a key, click the mouse, or start an application, you're sending instructions to the CPU. The CPU is usually a two-inch ceramic square with a silicon chip located inside.

The chip is usually about the size of a thumbnail.

parts of computer

A processor's speed is measured in megahertz MHzor millions of instructions per second; and gigahertz GHzor billions of instructions per second. A faster processor can execute instructions more quickly.

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However, the actual speed of the computer depends on the speed of many different components—not just the processor. RAM is your system's short-term memory. Whenever your computer performs calculations, it temporarily stores the data in the RAM until it is needed. This short-term memory disappears when the computer is turned off. If you're working on a document, spreadsheet, or other type of file, you'll need to save it to avoid losing it.

When you save a file, the data is written to the hard drivewhich acts as long-term storage. The more RAM you have, the more things your computer can do at the same time. If you don't have enough RAM, you may notice that your computer is sluggish when you have several programs open.

parts of computer

Because of this, many people add extra RAM to their computers to improve performance. The hard drive is where your software, documents, and other files are stored. The hard drive is long-term storagewhich means the data is still saved even if you turn the computer off or unplug it.

When you run a program or open a file, the computer copies some of the data from the hard drive onto the RAM. When you save a file, the data is copied back to the hard drive.

The faster the hard drive, the faster your computer can start up and load programs. The power supply unit in a computer converts the power from the wall outlet to the type of power needed by the computer. It sends power through cables to the motherboard and other components.

Parts Of Computer

If you decide to open the computer case and take a look, make sure to unplug the computer first. Before touching the inside of the computer, you should touch a grounded metal object —or a metal part of the computer casing —to discharge any static buildup. Static electricity can be transmitted through the computer circuits, which can seriously damage your machine. Most computers have expansion slots on the motherboard that allow you to add various types of expansion cards.

These are sometimes called PCI peripheral component interconnect cards. You may never need to add any PCI cards because most motherboards have built-in video, sound, network, and other capabilities.Understanding the basic parts and components of your PC makes you more prepared to use it. The following figure shows a typical desktop computer system and its components.

Console: The main computer box is the console, although it may also be called the system unit or the CPU which is incorrect. On the outside, the console sports various buttons, lights, and holes into which you plug the rest of the computer system.

Monitor: The monitor is the device where the computer displays information, its output. A common mistake made by new computer users is to assume that the monitor is the computer. No, the console is the computer. The monitor merely displays information. Mouse: No rodent or pest, the computer mouse is a helpful device that lets you work with graphical objects that the computer displays on the monitor.

Speakers: PCs bleep and squawk through a set of stereo speakers, which can be external jobbies you set up, speakers built into the console or the monitor, or perhaps even headphones. Pay more money and you can even get a subwoofer to sit under your desk. The Basic Parts of a PC. View the basic components of your PC.OK, smart stuff.

Yes, your first-grade teacher's abacus and your friend's Japanese smart toilet the one he won't shut up about are both technically computers, which the Oxford Dictionary defines as "an electronic device for storing and processing data [ Especially since the advent of the microprocessor, computers have taken hundreds of forms and appeared as parts of countless devices, from your smart phone to your netbook to your smart fridge. So — with the disclaimer that not every computer under the sun features the same set of parts — let's stick to the basics and get into the key parts of the machines most folks are talking about when they say the word "computer.

Among the most crucial parts of the computer — or the most crucial — is the central processing unit, or CPU. Think of the CPU as the brain and central calculator of the computer. This computer chip, which is made of billions of microscopic transistors and sits on your computer's motherboard, receives, calculates and carries out basic instructions.

It also allocates tasks to other chips or parts of the computer. While desktops and laptops typically use CPUs, smaller devices like smart phones are increasingly likely to use a System on a Chip SoCwhich combines the CPU with other components to increase efficiency. Computers feature a variety of different types of memory, but all of it serves a fairly universal purpose: To temporarily store data when such storage is needed to achieve intermediate results.

Most commonly in modern computers, random access memory RAM is utilized. Basically, the CPU offloads program instructions to the memory for as long as a program needs to operate.

Once the program or computer shuts down, no data is stored in the memory perhaps ironically. If you were surprised that your computer's memory is actually not where your epic archive of college-era MP3s lives, the computer's mass storage device has you covered.

This is where data is actually written, stored and accessed for the long term, whether it's your old phone's gigabyte SD card or your new laptop's 1-terabyte of hard-disk storage.

When a computer needs to access program or app data or bring up a file that you saved six months or six years ago, that data comes from its storage device. Internal and external hard drives, SD cards, optical disc drives, USB flash drives and even cloud storage are all types of mass storage. The parts of a computer and their functions don't end there — after all, what good would a computer be if you couldn't interact with it? That's where input and output devices come in.

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An input device is any type of device you use to give instructions to a computer.Find the perfect components for your computer including solid-state drivesgraphics cardsCPUsmotherboardsmemorypower suppliescases and more. Our hard disk drives and solid state drives come in a wide variety of capacities to hold all of your games, music, movies, and TV shows without a problem. For those who want to build their own tower, we carry the computer parts and hardware to get you started.

We have a great selection of computer cases and chasses in metal or plastic, with USB 3. For a faster computer experience, we carry many different memory modules to boost your RAM. Increasing your memory by one to 16 gigabytes can significantly improve your multitasking abilities so you can go between video chatting, playing games, listening to music and more without your computer getting bogged down by all the open applications.

We even have an assortment of ergonomic, purpose-built, and other input devices to give you more control over your user interface. Find the components and computer parts you need to repair, build, or upgrade your computer at Amazon. Skip to main content. Computer Components Find the perfect components for your computer including solid-state drivesgraphics cardsCPUsmotherboardsmemorypower suppliescases and more.

FREE Shipping on eligible orders. In stock on April 22, See newer model of this item. In stock on April 23, In stock on April 28, In stock on April 29, In stock on April 24, In stock on April 25, In stock on May 1, Previous Page 1 2 Computer Parts and Components from Amazon. Free Shipping by Amazon. Western Digital. Frustration-Free Packaging. New Arrivals Coming Soon.Microsoft Windows, the most widely used operating system in the world, employs a windows metaphor for navigation and file management.

Understanding the parts of a window is the first step to knowing how to navigate through the operating system. At the top of every window is the title bar. The center of the title bar displays either the name of the program you are currently working in, or relevant information about what is happening in the program at any given moment. When the window is not maximized, this is where you can click and drag to move the window to a new location on the screen.

parts of computer

In the upper right-hand corner of the window are the three buttons used to minimize, maximize, and close the window. Minimizing the window shrinks it to nothing and places it out of sight.

Maximizing the window makes it fill the screen and locks it into position so that it cannot be moved by dragging the title bar. Closing the window shuts down the program. At the right side of the window is the scroll bar, which appears only if there is information to be displayed beyond the bottom range of the current window size.

Clicking and dragging on the slider in the scroll bar moves the contents of the window up or down so you can view all of the data available. Most programs will have a menu bar visible in the upper left-hand corner of the window.

The menu bar appears as text for most programs, and usually starts with "File" at the far left. Accessing the menu allows you to view various commands available to that program, including closing the program or the window.

parts of computer

The work space is all of the area inside the window where data for the current program is displayed. Parts of a Computer Window. By : Timothy Allen. Share Share on Facebook. Get great tech advice delivered to your inbox. Keep your family productive, connected, entertained, and safe. Please enter a valid email.A processor, computer memory, and input-output devices are the important components of a computer.

Each of these parts is responsible for a specific set of functions. Here is an overview of the main parts of a computer. A computer is a complex machine that is capable of performing huge computations at an extraordinary speed.

Graphics Card Specs: The Basics

Its processing power is often compared to that of a human brain. Although human intellect is the undoubted winner in this competition, the capabilities of a computer cannot be underestimated. Would you like to write for us?

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Well, we're looking for good writers who want to spread the word. Get in touch with us and we'll talk The primary responsibility of a computer processor is to execute a sequential set of instructions that constitute a program. CPU operation can be divided into four basic steps, namely, fetch, decode, execute, and writeback. In the decode step, the instruction is broken down into parts.

The instruction set architecture of the CPU defines the way in which an instruction is decoded. Hard Disc : A hard disc is described as a part of the computer disc drive, which stores data and provides computer users with quick access to large amounts of data.

A hard disc is an electromagnetically charged surface or set of discs that record data in concentric circles known as tracks. It is a non-volatile storage device that stores digitally encoded data. A head, resembling a phonograph arm, is used to read and write data onto a hard disk. The hard discs of desktops are generally capable of storing GB to 2 TB of data.

Laptop hard disc drives are smaller and have lower data storage capacities. Computer Memory : It refers to those components of a computer, which retain digital data. It forms the core of a computer and makes up the basic computer model in collaboration with the CPU. Magnetic drums and delay lines used as primary storage by computers of the early days, have metamorphosed into a miniature silicon chip, which can achieve efficient storage of large volumes of data.

Random Access Memory, popularly known as RAM, is a small-sized light and volatile form of computer memory.

It is capable of temporary storage of data. Registers located in a computer processor are the fastest forms of computer storage. The most frequently used information is duplicated in the processor cache of a computer, thereby improving its performance. Computers require a non-volatile primary storage to read large programs.

This non-volatile memory is known as ROM or Read-only memory. It also contains the startup programs used for bootstrapping a computer. Secondary storage media such as flash memory, magnetic tape, punch cards, and zip drives and tertiary storage media like tape libraries are also a part of computer memory. Monitor : A visual display unit, as it is called, is an electrical equipment that displays images generated by the video output of a computer. Monitors of the early years used CRT technology for imaging, while modern computer monitors use LCD or even plasma screens.

The display provides computer users with an instant feedback in the form of text and graphic images. Monitors are the most-used output devices of a computer. Keyboard : A keyboard is regarded as an input device for a computer.Computer hardware includes the physical parts of a computersuch as the case[1] central processing unit CPUmonitorkeyboardcomputer data storagegraphics cardsound cardspeakers and motherboard.

By contrast, software is the set of instructions that can be stored and run by hardware. Hardware is so-termed because it is " hard " or rigid with respect to changes, whereas software is "soft" because it is easy to change. Hardware is typically directed by the software to execute any command or instruction.

A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system, although other systems exist with only hardware. The template for all modern computers is the Von Neumann architecturedetailed in a paper by Hungarian mathematician John von Neumann. This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registersa control unit containing an instruction register and program countera memory to store both data and instructionsexternal mass storageand input and output mechanisms.

This is referred to as the Von Neumann bottleneck and often limits the performance of the system. The personal computeralso known as the PC, is one of the most common types of computer due to its versatility and relatively low price. Most personal computers possess a monitora keyboarda mouseand a computer case. The computer case encloses and holds all of the necessary hardware required to store and process data on the computer.

The motherboard ensures that all other inner computer hardware communicates with each other. The CPU executes instructions for running computer programs. RAM is responsible for the temporary storage of data while the computer operates. Laptops are designed for portability and are generally very similar to PCs, [1] although they may use lower-power or reduced size components, thus lower performance for a given price point.

The Five Main Parts of a Computer

The monitor is found in the upper cover of the laptop, and it and the laptop itself can be secured by closing the cover. Instead of a mouse, laptops usually may have a trackpad attached below the in-built keyboard. The computer case encloses and holds most of the components of the system. It provides mechanical support and protection for internal elements such as the motherboard, disk drives, and power supplies, and controls and directs the flow of cooling air over internal components.

The case is also part of the system to control electromagnetic interference radiated by the computer and protects internal parts from electrostatic discharge.

Large tower cases provide extra internal space for multiple disk drives or other peripherals and usually stand on the floor, while desktop cases provide less expansion room. All-in-one style designs include a video display built into the same case. Portable and laptop computers require cases that provide impact protection for the unit. A current development in laptop computers is a detachable keyboard, which allows the system to be configured as a touch-screen tablet.

Hobbyists may decorate the cases with colored lights, paint, or other features, in an activity called case modding. A power supply unit PSU converts alternating current AC electric power to low-voltage direct current DC power for the internal components of the computer. Laptops are capable of running from a built-in battery, normally for a period of hours.

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The motherboard is the main component of a computer. It is a board with integrated circuitry that connects the other parts of the computer including the CPUthe RAMthe disk drives CDDVDhard diskor any others as well as any peripherals connected via the ports or the expansion slots.

An expansion card in computing is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a computer motherboard or backplane to add functionality to a computer system via the expansion bus. Expansion cards can be used to obtain or expand on features not offered by the motherboard.

A storage device is any computing hardware and digital media that is used for storing, porting and extracting data files and objects. It can hold and store information both temporarily and permanently and can be internal or external to a computer, server or any similar computing device. Data storage is a core function and fundamental component of computers.

Data is stored by a computer using a variety of media. Hard disk drives HDDs are found in virtually all older computers, due to their high capacity and low cost, but solid-state drives SSDs are faster and more power efficient, although currently more expensive than hard drives in terms of dollar per gigabyte, [9] so are often found in personal computers built post

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